1. be doomed to V/N 注定會……（之後接否定或消極的字詞）
The whole plan was doomed to failure from the very beginning.
2. scientific a. 科學（上）的
Members of the scientific community agree that Jim’s latest theory is nonsense.
* community n. 團體
3. achievement n. 成就
The Barkley Marathons is so difficult that simply finishing it is a huge achievement.
4. Put simply,… 簡言之，……
= Simply put,…
= To put it simply,…
Put simply, we accept their offer or go bankrupt.
* bankrupt a. 破產的；倒閉的
5. analyze vt. 分析，剖析
You should analyze the pros and cons of quitting your current job before you do it.
* pros and cons n. 利弊，好處與壞處
6. identify vt. 辨識（某人或某物）
At first sight, Crystal identified the man as the thief who had stolen her money.
7. defeat vt. 擊敗
Chris came up with a way to defeat the other team.
8. potential n. 潛力，潛能
Colin has acting potential, but he needs formal training.